Abstract

Review Article

Neurotoxicity related exposure to ambient nanoparticles

Mojtaba Ehsanifar*, Zeinab Montazeri and Mehravar Rafati

Published: 18 January, 2022 | Volume 6 - Issue 1 | Pages: 005-010

Air pollution exposure is among the most prevalent reasons for environmentally-induced oxidative stress and inflammation, both of which are implicated in the central nervous system (CNS) diseases. The CNS has emerged as an important target for adverse health effects of exposure to air pollutants, where it can cause neurological and neurodevelopmental disorders. Air pollution includes various components of gases, particulate matter (PM), ultrafine particulate (UFPs), metals, and organic compounds. An important source of PM and UFPM in the ambient air is associated with air pollution-related trafficking, and primarily diesel exhaust particles (DEPs). Controlled animal studies and epidemiological studies show that exposure to air pollution, and in particular urban air pollution or DEPs, may lead to neurotoxicity. In specific, exposure to air pollutants as an important factor may be in neurodevelopmental disorders (eg Autism) and neurological disorders (eg.., Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)). The most noticeable effects of exposure to air pollutants in animals and humans are oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. Studies in rats exposed to DEPs showed microglial activity, increased lipid peroxidation, and neuronal accumulation in various areas of the brain, especially the olfactory bulb (OB) and the hippocampus (HI). Disorders of adult neurogenesis were also found. In most cases, the effects of DEP are more pronounced in male mice, probably due to lower antioxidant capacity due to less expression of paraoxonase 2.

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001060 Cite this Article Read Full Article PDF

Keywords:

Air pollution exposure; Diesel exhaust particles; Neurotoxicity; Oxidative stress; Neuro-inflammation; CNS diseases; Neurodevelopmental disorders

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