Table of Contents

Most Comparative Study of Cerebral Volumetric Variations in Patients with Schizophrenia with their Unaffected First-degree Relatives, using Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technique, a Case-control Study

Published on: 3rd January, 2024

Background and purpose: Schizophrenia (SZH) is a chronic mental disorder affecting the individuals` thoughts, perceptions, emotions, and behaviors. People with SZH may experience a wide range of positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms. Since there are no laboratory assays for definite SZH diagnosis, the authors aimed to identify the cerebral volumetric variations in SZH patients with the most prevalent positive symptoms as a diagnostic tool. This study selected 15 SZH patients displaying the most prevalent positive symptoms based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria. Assessment tools included the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for cognitive impairment, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for symptom evaluation, and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WIS) for intelligence assessment. Additionally, 15 Healthy Controls (HC) without cerebral pathologies were recruited. T1w MRI images underwent analysis using Freesurfer software. Data analysis employed Mann-Whitney U and χ² tests, considering p < 0.05 as significant.Results: SZH and HC groups showed no significant differences in age and gender. However, significant (p < 0.05) alterations in Gray Matter (GM) volume were observed in SZH patients compared to HC. In the right hemisphere, several regions exhibited volume reduction, including the Fusiform sulcus, Rostral middle frontal gyrus, isthmus cingulate, Frontal pole, Middle temporal gyrus, Lateral occipital gyrus, and Inferior Parietal gyrus. Notably, the Precentral sulcus and Postcentral gyrus demonstrated volume acceleration. Similarly, in the left hemisphere, various regions showed volume reduction while the Paracentral gyrus indicated volume acceleration, all significant (p < 0.05).Conclusion: SZH patients display significant volumetric brain changes, indicating potential for future diagnostic procedures in SZH.
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Autoimmune Diseases Associated with Iron Deficiency Anemia; Coexistence of Demyelinating Disease and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Published on: 24th January, 2024

In a young patient with iron deficiency anemia and low hemoglobin levels, we identified a very rare association: Demyelinating disease with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD).
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A Strength-based Approach to Achieving Academic Success for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

Published on: 14th February, 2024

Qualitative research enabled us to explore the personal perceptions and institutional factors that facilitated academic success, as well as challenges, of a sample of 40 academically talented students with autism spectrum disorder (2e/ASD) who were enrolled in highly competitive colleges and universities in the United States. We explored their high school academic and social experiences, their college transition, parental views of their talents and disabilities, as well as college service providers’ opinions about their academic progress and needs. We identified some specific strength-based teaching and instructional strategies and academic experiences that students reported as contributing to their academic success during high school including challenging and advanced classes, use of strengths-based learning strategies (like independent study, and positive relationships with teachers and counselors. We also found that the level of disability support offered by the college was an important consideration for the academic success of this population, as was an understanding of the laws and regulations that apply and don’t apply when students with disabilities attend college. 
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Biomarkers for High Metabolic Burden in Neurologic Disease

Published on: 15th February, 2024

Neurologic diseases are recognized to have multifactorial origins well beyond mere genetic predisposition. Nutritional burdens have been identified to contribute to neurodegeneration. Healthy diets are becoming increasingly appreciated to potentially play key roles in both the developing and developed world of reducing incidences of neurologic diseases, while unhealthy diets are acknowledged to be contributing to their rise.
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A Water-soluble Form of Dihydroquercetin Reduces LPS-induced Astrogliosis, Vascular Remodeling, and mRNA VEGF-A Levels in the Substantia Nigra of Aged Rats

Published on: 16th February, 2024

Background: The age-dependent sporadic form of PD is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the Substantia Nigra (SN), gliosis, and vascular changes. Vascular changes may contribute to the onset of the disease and exacerbate the neurodegenerative process, as some vascular changes occur before the onset of neuronal loss. To demonstrate the anti-neuroinflammatory efficacy of a new compound, a water-soluble form of dihydroquercetin (DHQ-WF), we studied the structural changes of microcirculatory vasculature, astroglial GFAP, and vascular endothelial growth factor –A (VEGF-A) mRNA expression in the SN of young and old rats after unilateral nigral treatment by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and oral administration of DHQ-WF.Materials and methods: The experiments were performed on 18 young (8 weeks - 10 weeks old; 250 g - 320 g) and 18 old (18 months - 19 months old; 390 g - 450 g) male Vistar rats. Young and adult rats from the experimental groups were stereotactically injected with 2 μL LPS solution (LPS from Escherichia coli; 0,01 μL/mL) into one side of the SN. Control young and old rats were similarly injected with 2 μL sterile saline. Half of the animals in both the control and experimental groups (6 animals in each group) received a 2 ml solution containing DHQ-WF at a concentration of 3 mg/ml orally every day. After 8 weeks, brains were harvested and serial cryostat sections were prepared for histochemical (FITC-labeled tomato lectin), immunohistochemical (anti-GFAP Antibody, Cy3 Conjugate) staining, and real-time PCR (mRNA VEGF-A).Results: Eight weeks after LPS injection into the SN, a significant excess of areas occupied by cell bodies and processes of astroglial cells, the density of microcirculatory vessels, and mRNA VEGF-A expression was observed in old animals compared to control old animals and young LPS-treated rats.  Oral administration of DHQ-WF to LPS-treated rats resulted in a significant reduction of these parameters in old animals.Conclusion: Injection of LPS into rat SN induces neuroinflammation and vascular angiogenesis, maximally expressed in old animals.  Administration of DHQ-WF for 8 weeks significantly reduces these LPS-induced changes. DHQ-WF may be an effective treatment for reducing the effects of neuroinflammation in the aging brain.
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Chemotherapy-induced Peripheral Neuropathy: A Mini-review of Current & Developmental Treatments

Published on: 22nd February, 2024

Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy (CIPN) is a major limiting side effect of many common chemotherapeutics often leading patients to terminate their chemotherapy treatment regimen early. The development of CIPN differs by chemotherapeutic class, with platinum- and taxane-based treatments demonstrating the highest incidence rates. Despite its relatively high prevalence, there are currently no FDA-approved treatments for CIPN, and clinicians must rely on the off-label use of several analgesics and various non-pharmacological approaches to treat CIPN symptoms in patients. Novel insights on the development of CIPN have identified new drug targets leading to several Phase II clinical trials to be initiated. Here, we describe recent advances in drug development for CIPN.
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