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Endovascular management of tandem occlusions in stroke: Treatment strategies in a real-world scenario

Published on: 29th June, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9272368208

The association between intracranial large vessel occlusion (LVO) and concurrent steno-occlusive lesion of an ipsilateral extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) is considered a tandem occlusion (TO) [1]. In approximately half of TO, the first clinical manifestation are acute occlusions of the extracranial ICA associated with occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), with additional occlusion of the intracranial ICA in up to 25% of these cases.[2] This particular lesion subset is technically challenging for endovascular treatment (EVT) and is also characterized by lower success rates of intravenous thrombolysis [3], worse prognosis compared to intracranial occlusions alone, and higher rates of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage [4]. The optimal approach regarding EVT of TO remains controversial, and reports in this regard are scarce. There are two proposed strategies according to the selection of the first lesion to be treated. The proximal approach comprises stenting of the proximal cervical ICA followed by mechanical thrombectomy (MT) of the intracranial vessel, whereas the distal approach involves MT followed by stenting of the cervical ICA [3–14]. Besides, there other clinically relevant unresolved aspects regarding the treatment of these patients, such as concomitant use of intravenous thrombolysis, the need for stenting compared to angioplasty alone, as well as the most adequate antiplatelet strategy after treatment. Accordingly, we aimed to report the procedural and clinical outcomes of a real-world experience in a comprehensive stroke center regarding EVT of anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke (AIS) associated with a TO.
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